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Wine Terms Starting With The Letter 'F'

Describes a wine that is losing color, fruit or flavor, usually as a result of age.
Farm winery
A United States & South Africa winery license allowing farms to produce and sell wine on-site.
Full-bodied, high alcohol wines low in acidity give a "fat" impression on the palate. Can be a plus with bold, ripe, rich flavors; can also suggest the wine's structure is suspect.
Italian term for a wine estate.
An unpleasant characteristic of wine resulting from a flaw with the winemaking process or storage conditions.
In the Austrian wine region Wachau, a classification of wine with a harvest must weight of at least 17°KM Wand a finished alcohol level between 11–12.5% with no more than 4 g/l residual sugar. This classification is between the levels of Stein feder and Smaragd.
Unregulated German term for wines that are off-dry. Feinherb is often used in place of the less popular designation halbtrocken, as well as for wines that are slightly sweeter than regulations dictate for halbtrockens.
Describes wines with qualities such as smoothness, roundness, gentleness, finesse, elegance and delicacy. Usage of "feminine" is in decline in favor of these more specific terms.
The process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide; turns grape juice into wine.
Fermentazione naturale
An Italian term for a "naturally sparkling" wine. This usually refers to a wine, such asAsti, that has been bottled before fermentation is completed so that a natural sparkle of CO2 can be achieved in the bottle.
The straw-covered flask historically associated with Chianti.
Field Blend
When a vineyard is planted to several different varieties and the grapes are harvested together to produce a single wine, the wine is called a field blend.
Fighting Varietal
This term was coined in the 1980s to describe a new category of wines, labeled as varietals but priced nearly as inexpensively as generics (e.g., "Mountain Chablis" or "Hearty Burgundy"). Glen Ellen was one of the first to sell good quality Chardonnay and Cabernet for $4 to $6 per bottle. Since then, the category has expanded; it includes varietals such as Merlot, producers from regions as far-flung as Chile, Australia and the south of France, and prices up to nearly $10 per bottle. But the concept is the same: a varietal wine of good quality at an everyday price.
Fighting varietal
A term that originated in California during the mid 1980s to refer to any inexpensive cork-finished varietal wine in a 1.5 liter bottle.
Fill Level
The amount of wine in a bottle is gauged by its height in the bottle. Common descriptors are good fill, high shoulder (the wine level is even with the sloping part of the bottle just below the neck), or low shoulder. Important since fill level is an indicator of the wine’s condition and whether it has been properly stored. The air space in the bottle, called ullage, can cause harmful oxidation.
Pumping wine through a screen or pad to remove leftover grape and fermentation particles. Most wines are filtered for both clarity and stability, although many winemakers believe that some flavors and complexity are also stripped from the wine.
Fine wine
The highest category of wine quality, representing only a very small percentage of worldwide production of wine.
A technique for clarifying wine using agents such as bentonite (powdered clay), isinglass (fish bladder), casein (milk protein), gelatin or egg whites, which combine with sediment particles and cause them to settle to the bottom, where they can be easily removed.
Substances added at or near the completion of wine processing, to remove of organic compounds for the purpose of improving clarity or adjusting flavor or aroma.
One key to judging a wine's quality is finish—a measure of the taste or flavors that linger in the mouth after the wine is tasted. Great wines have rich, long, complex finishes.
Fino is the driest classification of Sherry wines. The freshest and palest category of Sherry, finos are protected from oxygenation by a cap of flor yeast while aging in barrel.
Describes a wine that is unbalanced due to insufficient acidity, lacking backbone.
A glass bottle that holds two litres of (usually inexpensive) table wine.
Describes a wine that is dull in flavor and unbalanced due to insufficient acidity. Can also refer to a sparkling wine that has lost its bubbles.
Describing a wine with good extract and a smooth texture. The sensation of drinking the wine recalls biting into ripe, fleshy fruit such as a plum.
A set of wines that are compared and contrasted with one another. A single flight can include as few as two wines, but three to six wines are common.
A descriptor for extremely dry white wines such as Sauvignon Blanc, whose bouquet can be reminiscent of flint struck against steel.
Flor is the Spanish term for a cap of yeast that forms over Sherry wine as it ages in barrel, protecting the wine from oxidation.
Floral (Also Flowery)
Literally, having the characteristic aromas of flowers. Mostly associated with white wines.
The emergence of tiny blossoms on grapevines in late spring. An important time of year, since spring rains and winds can disrupt flowering, reducing the potential crop.
Flying winemaker
A winemaker who travels extensively across the globe, sharing techniques and technology from one region of the world to another. The term originated with Australian winemakers who would fly to Northern Hemisphere wine regions in Europe and theUnited States during the August–October harvest time when viticulture in the Southern Hemisphere is relatively quiet.
Denotes a wine whose alcohol content has been increased by the addition of brandy or neutral spirits.
Fortified wine
Wine to which alcohol has been added, generally to increase the concentration to a high enough level to prevent fermentation.
A large wooden vat, popular in France's Rhône Valley, significantly larger than typical oak barrels, often with the capacity to hold more than a thousand liters of wine.
A term used to describe the unique musky and grapey character of many native American labrusca grape varieties.
Free-Run Juice
The juice released by a pile of grapes as their skins split under their own weight, before they are mechanically pressed. With white wines, this initial juice is considered to be the highest quality since it has the least amount of contact with bitter elements in the pips, skins and stems.
French Oak
The traditional wood for wine barrels, which supplies vanilla, cedar and sometimes butterscotch flavors. Used for red and white wines. Much more expensive than American oak, new French oak barrels can cost twice as much as new American barrels.
French Paradox
Despite a high-fat diet, the French have low rates of coronary heart disease. An explanation may be found in scientific evidence that points to the benefits of moderate wine consumption.
Having a lively, clean and fruity character. An essential for young wines.
Italian term for sparkling wines with lighter effervescence and fewer bubbles than found in ordinary sparkling wines. Not a fault, it is a stylistic choice in many Italian sparklers.
Italian term for a wine that has very slight effervescence, more than a still wine but less than a semi-sparkling. Similar to the French termperlant.
Subfreezing temperatures, which can damage or kill vines, are especially harmful in the early spring after budbreak. Heaters known as smudge pots, wind machines that keep cold air from settling in the vineyard and aspersion (using water sprinklers to form a protective barrier of ice around young vine buds) may be used when frosts are forecast. In the winter, before budbreak, a moderate frost can be a blessing; it hardens the vine’s wood and also kills spores and pests living under the bark.
Fruit Set
In late spring or early summer, fertilized flowers swell into tiny bunches of grapes.
Fruit wine
A fermented alcoholic beverage made from non-grape fruit juice which may or may not include the addition of sugar or honey. Fruit wines are always called "something" wines (e.g., plum wine), since the word wine alone is often legally defined as a beverage made only from grapes.
Having the aroma and taste of fruit or fruits.
A rich, extracted wine with a mouthfilling sensation of weight or mass.

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